Mutual Fund is an excellent Investment option for multiplying your retirement Corpus. Here we are going to discuss what are mutual Fund and its features.
Now a day’s Mutual Fund is a popular financial vehicle that pools money from individuals and institutional investors for common investment objectives. The pooled investments are professionally managed by the Fund managers. They invest in different securities such as Stocks, Bonds, and money market instruments that are in line with investment Mandates. As the Fund managers have in-depth understanding of markets, so their intention is to provide optimum returns to the investor by their investment decision. Investors would be allocated the unit-based funds on the amount they invest.
Each Mutual Fund has a different investment objective, which is set by Fund Manager before launching the scheme in the market.
Based on this objective, the Fund Manager selects financial securities for the fund. Thus, sets its return and risk expectation.
If Fund’s objective is income generation, then Fund Manager would invest most of the money in Debt and Liquid instruments. Because they are less risky and give inflation-adjusted returns. Whereas if the fund objective is wealth creation, then the fund manager would invest most of the money in Equity & Equity Related instruments. Because they are riskier, have the potential to beat inflation through returns.
Mutual funds are broadly divided on the basis of categorization. Which are as follows:-
· Based on the Structure of Mutual Fund
Ø Open Ended fund:-Investor can buy & sell funds at any time.
Ø Close Ended Funds:-Investor can buy the fund once during the Offer period.
· Based on Asset Class of Mutual Fund
Ø Equity Fund:-Invest mainly in stocks. So also known as Stock Fund.
Ø Debt fund: - Principally invest in fixed income securities like bonds and treasury bills etc.
Ø Gold Fund: - The type of mutual funds that directly or indirectly invest in gold reserves.
· Based on the Risk-Return profile of Mutual Fund
Ø Equity Funds:-These funds invest in Equity & equity related Instruments. Such funds are so volatile in performance but in the long run, it will return good capital appreciation.
Ø Balanced Funds:-These funds include equity and debt both.
Ø Debt Funds
· Based on Market capitalization in Equity fund.
Ø Large-cap:- Top 100 companies in terms of market capitalization are considering large-cap companies.
Ø Mid-cap:-Next 101st- 250th companies in term of market capitalization are considering mid-cap companies.
Ø Small-Cap:- 251st company onwards in terms of market capitalization are considering small-cap companies.
In a simple way, we can conclude what is mutual fund is
Ø Investing in Mutual Funds is generally much easier than buying or selling financial securities like stocks, bonds or money market instruments.
Ø Mutual funds are operated by professional ‘fund managers’. They invest the fund’s capital in various financial securities according to scheme objectives. Thus, attempting to generate capital gains and income for the fund’s investors. These Fund Managers are highly qualified individuals who invest your money based on huge backend research and analysis.
Ø All funds should be registered with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). SEBI regulates securities markets before it can collect funds from the investor.
Ø Each investor owns units, which represent the percentage of the holdings of the fund. The income/gains generated from this collective investment which is distributed amongst the investors after deducting certain expenses, by calculating a scheme’s “Net Asset Value or NAV”.
Ø Simply put, it is one of the most viable investment options for the common man. Since it offers an option to invest in a diversified and well-managed basket of securities at a comparatively low cost.